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What is the “by” line in a contract signature block?


By your business attorney and San Jose Estate Planning attorney  For the contract signature block, you’d need to see the whole block because it could either be the place where you put the name of the entity or where you sign your personal name. Most of the time it’s a signature. For instance, let’s say […]

Should I Incorporate in California or Delaware?

Business owners often ask whether they should be incorporating in California (or their home state) or if they are better protected by incorporating in Delaware or some other jurisdiction. Their concerns are often focused on taxes, limitations on personal liability and governance of the corporation. However, for venture scale startups, the question may best be […]

What Is a Non-Disclosure Agreement?

A nondisclosure agreement or NDA creates a legal obligation to privacy and compels those who agree to keep any specified information top-secret or secured. NDAs are common in many business settings, as they provide one of the most effective way to protect trade secrets and other confidential information. Information commonly protected by NDAs might include […]

What Does the TM Symbol Mean: Everything You Need to Know

by your business attorney and San Jose Estate Planning Attorney A TM can also be used alongside an unregistered mark informing a potential infringer that a slogan, phrase, term, or logo is already claimed as a trademark. What is the meaning of TM Symbol? The TM symbol means “trademark” and is used to notify the […]

Legal Precedent Meaning

What is a Precedent? Precedent is a legal principle, created by a court decision, which provides an  authority for judges deciding similar issues later. Decisions of higher courts (such as Appellate Courts & Supreme Counts) are mandatory precedents on lower courts within that jurisdiction. That means the legal principle announced by a higher court must […]

Difference between chairman and president in a Company?

  United States of America perspective   The President of a corporation typically is the most senior corporate officer (frequently also the Chief Executive Officer). The President typically reports to the board of directors. The Chairman is called, more formally, the Chairman of the Board. This is the board member who is chosen by the […]

What does “Its” and “By” mean on a contract’s signature line?


  by your business attorney and San Francisco Estate Planning attorney A contract signature block that looks somewhat like the following:   NAME OF COMPANY SIGNING THE CONTRACT By: ___________________(signature) __________________(print name) Title: _________________ Date: _________________ Sometimes we use the word “Its” instead of “title.” It is intended to designate what position the signer holds at the […]

Does an LLC need an Operating Agreement?

This post answers the following question: Is an operating agreement required? As is the case for many issues pertaining to limited liability companies, the answer varies from state to state. To answer this question, we need to examine the relevant statutes for each state. Most States, Operating Agreement Not Required Most states do not require that an LLC […]